Infections: Antimicrobial resistance on the r...

Antimicrobial resistance on the rise

Peter Smola/

ITALY, Parma. Bacteria in humans, food and animals continue to show resistance to the most widely used antimicrobials, says the latest report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic bacteria in Europe. Scientists warn that resistance to ciprofloxacin, an antimicrobial that is critically important for the treatment of human infections, is very high in Campylobacter, thus reducing the options for effective treatment of severe foodborne infections. Multi-drug resistant Salmonella bacteria continue to spread across Europe.

The findings of this latest annual Europe-wide report by EFSA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) underline again that antimicrobial resistance poses a serious risk to human and animal health. This risk was identified by the Commission as a major priority in its political agenda on food safety.

The report also found evidence of resistance to the antimicrobial colistin in Salmonella and E. coli among poultry in the EU. Mike Catchpole, Chief Scientist for ECDC, said: “This is worrying because it means that this last-resort drug may soon no longer be effective for treating severe human infections with Salmonella.”

In addition to the high levels of resistance shown throughout Europe, the report found that there are significant regional differences. The highest levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are observed in eastern and southern Europe. Marta Hugas, Head of EFSA’s Biological Hazards and Contaminants unit, said: “In northern Europe, there is lower resistance in bacteria from poultry, particularly in countries with low use of antimicrobials in animals.”

Key findings

Campylobacter – Campylobacteriosis, the disease caused by Campylobacter, is the most commonly reported foodborne disease in the EU. Resistance to widely used antimicrobials, such as ciprofloxacin, was commonly detected in bacteria from humans and poultry. High to extremely high resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed in broilers (69.8%), as well as in bacteria from humans (60.2%). High to extremely high resistance to nalidixic acid and to tetracyclines was reported in broilers.


Salmonella – Salmonellosis is the second most commonly reported foodborne disease. Resistance to widely used antimicrobials was commonly detected in Salmonella from humans (tetracyclines 30%, sulphonamides 28.2%, ampicillin 28.2%) and poultry. The prevalence of multi-drug resistance was high in bacteria in humans (26%), and especially high in broiler and turkey meat (24.8% and 30.5%, respectively). Some types of Salmonella bacteria, namely Salmonella Kentucky and Salmonella Infantis, are of particular concern as they showed high level of resistance to ciprofloxacin and high multi-drug resistance. The occurrence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) was observed at low levels in Salmonella from poultry. However, a clone of multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing Salmonella Infantis was reported in both humans and poultry. Carbapenemase-producing Salmonella were not detected in poultry and meat thereof.

The European Union summary report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2014.

Source: EFSA