Beef packing Inefficient plants out of business
“Even before the extremes of 2020, recent margins suggest that there is incentive to add packing capacity,” said Dustin Aherin, analyst – Animal Protein for Rabobank, in “The Case for Capacity” report.
“The drought-induced cow herd contraction and resulting decline in fed cattle availability in the early 2010s, drove the most inefficient packing plants out of business as competition for limited cattle supplies drove cattle prices to record levels,” Aherin wrote. “The remaining plants are those that have best managed operating costs through optimal geographic location, supply chain relationships and economies of scale.”
Additional packing capacity could counteract the imbalance between fed cattle supplies and packing capacity while still allowing significant margins for packers, Aherin said. He added that an additional capacity of 5,000 to 6,000 head of fed cattle per day could restore the historical balance. Aherin suggests timing during cattle cycles as one reason increased capacity has yet to occur. The current herd contraction is a predictor of tighter cattle supplies following the current backlog in packing.
Whether an existing operation adding a plant or a new enterprise, cost serves as a tremendous hurdle to increased capacity. Industry sources estimate the cost of a new facility at $100 mill. to $120 mill. per 1,000 head of daily capacity. Once a new plant exists and becomes ready to process, the capital to maintain through the first cattle cycle alone makes would-be investors wary. If a plant project initiated when margins look favorable proceeds, years of construction and regulatory requirements will likely push through the cattle cycle turning over to tighter supplies and negative profits for the first few years of business.
Technology offers the best solution for existing plants to add capacity while smaller to medium, 1,000 to 2,000 head operations, make the most sense for adding capacity through new construction.